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Kidney and Urinary
The kidneys have important tasks to perform in the human system. These are (i) regulation of the volume of the body fluids, (ii) elimination of inorganic ions both cations (e.g. Na+, K+) or anions (e.g. Cl’, phosphate, SO4) from the body, (iii) maintenance of appropriate plasma concentration of non-electrolytes such as glucose and urea, (iv) maintaining electrolyte balance by H+ and OH- ions and thus adidity or alkalinity of the blood, (v) elimination of waste products especially the nitrogen and sulphur containing substances as well as the toxic substances (e.g. drugs) which have entered the body, and (vi) retention of substances vital to body economy. These also have some more functions.
Major diseases or Kidney disorders are Anuria or oliguria (complete to cessation or less formation of urine), polyuria (frequent passage of small quantities of urine), abnormal constituents in urine (e.g. blood, pus etc.), Nephritis, pyelitis (inflamanation of the parenchyma & pelvis of the Kidney) uraemia (i.e. renal failure causing retention of abnormal amounts of urea in the blood), renal colic due to calculus or such other condition, Dysuria (painfull passage of urine). A simple Urine test for Albumin and a Blood test for Serum Creatinine. The increased level of Albumin and Serum Creatinine will tell if the kidneys are getting effected. Other symptoms which show kidney problems are: High Blood Pressure, Decreased Hoemoglobin and High Blood Urea.
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